Nine previously undescribed diterpene glucosides, rhodomicranosides A-I, comprising leucothane, 4,5-seco-ent-kaurane, and grayanane types, respectively, were isolated from the leaves of Rhododendron micranthum, along with seven known diterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses such as HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, UV, and IR, and their absolute configurations were determined by various methods including X-ray diffraction analysis, electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy (ECD), calculated ECD, and Mo
-induced ECD, as well as chemical methods. This is the first time to report the crystal structures of leucothane diterpene glycosides. Rhodomicranosides A-C represent the first examples of 15α-hydroxy-leucothane diterpenoids, leucothane diterpene diglucosides, and 9β-hydroxy-leucothane diterpenoids, respectively. Rhodomicranosides D and E are the second and third examples of 4,5-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoids, and this is the first time to report 4,5-seco-ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from the genus of Rhododendron. Rhodomicranosides F and G are the first examples of 5α-H-grayan-1(10),9(11)-diene-6-one diterpenoids. Some isolated diterpenoids were evaluated for their analgesic activity in an acetic acid-induced writhing test, and rhodomicranosides A-E and H, pierisformoside F, iso-grayanotoxin II, and grayanotoxins I, III, and IV showed significant analgesic effects with the percentage inhibitions over 50% at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg. In particular, grayanotoxins I and III exhibited more potent analgesic activity than morphine at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, and they showed significant analgesic activity even at a lower dose of 0.04 mg/kg with the inhibition rates of 71.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were discussed.
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