Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a semi-arid, oil-producing industrial crop that have been widely cultivated in tropical arid region. Low temperature is one of the major environmental stress that impair jojoba's growth, development and yield and limit introduction of jojoba in the vast temperate arid areas. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of the cold stress response of jojoba, a combined physiological and quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted. Under cold stress, the photosynthesis was repressed, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), relative electrolyte leakage (REL), soluble sugars, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were increased in jojoba leaves. Of the 2821 proteins whose abundance were determined, a total of 109 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were found and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the coding genes for 7 randomly selected DAPs were performed for validation. The identified DAPs were involved in various physiological processes. Functional classification analysis revealed that photosynthesis, adjustment of cytoskeleton and cell wall, lipid metabolism and transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and carbohydrate metabolism were closely associated with the cold stress response. Some cold-induced proteins, such as cold-regulated 47 (COR47), staurosporin and temperature sensitive 3-like a (STT3a), phytyl ester synthase 1 (PES1) and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1, might play important roles in cold acclimation in jojoba seedlings. Our work provided important data to understand the plant response to the cold stress in tropical woody crops.