Mammalian X chromosome dosage compensation balances X-linked gene products between sexes and is coordinated by the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Xist. Multiple cis and trans-acting factors modulate Xist expression; however, the primary competence factor responsible for activating Xist remains a subject of dispute. The lncRNA Jpx is a proposed competence factor, yet it remains unknown if Jpx is sufficient to activate Xist expression in mice. Here, we utilize a novel transgenic mouse system to demonstrate a dose-dependent relationship between Jpx copy number and ensuing Jpx and Xist expression. By localizing transcripts of Jpx and Xist using RNA Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) in mouse embryonic cells, we provide evidence of Jpx acting in both trans and cis to activate Xist. Our data contribute functional and mechanistic insight for lncRNA activity in mice, and argue that Jpx is a competence factor for Xist activation in vivo.