Alanio, A; Hauser, P.M; Lagrou, K; Melchers, W.J.G; Helweg-Larsen, J; Matos, O; Cesaro, S; Maschmeyer, G; Einsele, H; Donnelly, J.P; Cordonnier, C; Maertens, J; Bretagne, S; Bruggemann, R.J.M; Kullberg, B.J; et al
ECIL guidelines for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients
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  • Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 2016, Vol.71 (9), p.2386-96
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The Fifth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) convened a meeting to establish evidence-based recommendations for using tests to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in adult patients with haematological malignancies. Immunofluorescence assays are recommended as the most sensitive microscopic method (recommendation A-II: ). Real-time PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of PCP ( A-II: ). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is recommended as the best specimen as it yields good negative predictive value ( A-II: ). Non-invasive specimens can be suitable alternatives ( B-II: ), acknowledging that PCP cannot be ruled out in case of a negative PCR result ( A-II: ). Detecting beta-d-glucan in serum can contribute to the diagnosis but not the follow-up of PCP ( A-II: ). A negative serum beta-d-glucan result can exclude PCP in a patient at risk ( A-II: ), whereas a positive test result may indicate other fungal infections. Genotyping using multilocus sequence markers can be used to investigate suspected outbreaks ( A-II: ). The routine detection of dihydropteroate synthase mutations in cases of treatment failure is not recommended ( B-II: ) since these mutations do not affect response to high-dose co-trimoxazole. The clinical utility of these diagnostic tests for the early management of PCP should be further assessed in prospective, randomized interventional studies.

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