BackgroundHeterogeneity of population health needs and the resultant difficulty in health care resources planning are challenges faced by primary care systems globally. To address this challenge in population health management, it is critical to have a better understanding of primary care utilizers' heterogeneous health profiles. We aimed to segment a population of primary care utilizers into classes with unique disease patterns, and to report the 1year follow up healthcare utilizations and all-cause mortality across the classes.MethodsUsing de-identified administrative data, we included all adult Singapore citizens or permanent residents who utilized Singapore Health Services (SingHealth) primary care services in 2012. Latent class analysis was used to identify patient subgroups having unique disease patterns in the population. The models were assessed by Bayesian Information Criterion and clinical interpretability. We compared healthcare utilizations in 2013 and one-year all-cause mortality across classes and performed regression analysis to assess predictive ability of class membership on healthcare utilizations and mortality.ResultsWe included 100,747 patients in total. The best model (k=6) revealed the following classes of patients: Class 1 Relatively healthy (n=58,213), Class 2 Stable metabolic disease (n=26,309), Class 3 Metabolic disease with vascular complications (n=2964), Class 4 High respiratory disease burden (n=1104), Class 5 High metabolic disease without complication (n=11,122), and Class 6 Metabolic disease with multi-organ complication (n=1035). The six derived classes had different disease patterns in 2012 and 1 year follow up healthcare utilizations and mortality in 2013. Metabolic disease with multiple organ complications class had the highest healthcare utilization (e.g. incidence rate ratio=19.68 for hospital admissions) and highest one-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=27.97).ConclusionsPrimary care utilizers are heterogeneous and can be segmented by latent class analysis into classes with unique disease patterns, healthcare utilizations and all-cause mortality. This information is critical to population level health resource planning and population health policy formulation.