Shales associated with the Lower Permian (Barakar Formation) sediments of the Auranga Coalfield, India, occur in the immature–early mature stage. The sorption capacity of Barakar shale samples has been studied through high-pressure methane (CH4) adsorption and low-pressure N2 gas adsorption (LPN2GA) methods, supported with proximate analyses, programmed pyrolysis, optical petrography, and with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sorption capacity is a function of the organic and inorganic constituents present in the shale samples. The methane sorption capacity (MSC) and Langmuir volume of the shale samples vary from 0.217 to 0.314 and 0.315 to 0.429 mmol/g rock, respectively. The BET-calculated surface area of the studied shales varies from 8.12 to 30.36 m2/g. The sorption capacities show the importance of the total organic content (TOC) through weak but positive correlations with MSC (r 2 = 0.45) and S1 values (mg hydrocarbons/g rock from programmed pyrolysis; r 2 = 0.40). Moreover, apparent inverse relationships were observed between MSC and clay mineral abundances, suggesting that individual clay mineral types may influence MSC, although more work is needed. The TOC-normalized MSC (MSC*) of shale samples shows a positive trend with quartz plus clay mineral content and ash yield of r 2 = 0.64 for both. In addition, MSC* shows a negative logarithmic relationship with S1 + S2 (r 2 = 0.63) and a positive linear relationship with TOC-normalized total organic matter (TOM*) (r 2 = 0.88, when 5 low TOM* samples are excluded) indicating complex relationships possibly including bitumen retention in the sample pore spaces. The micropore study of the samples through LPN2GA, applying Dubinin–Radushkevich, Dubinin–Astakhov, and density functional theory models, shows the dominance of micro-mesopore concentrations in the shale matrix of ∼2 nm pore diameter. However, these pores might be present as blind or closed pores. The presence of thorium and zirconium is reflective of terrigenous detrital matter, i.e., moderately to strongly recycled sediments. The fluviatile facies of deposited shales in the Auranga Coalfield are noted by the significant presence of kaolinite (32.5–78.3%), which suggests the importance of its effect on the sorption capacity of proximal terrigenous shales.