Jharia Coalfield (JCF) is one of the oldest coalfields in the eastern part of India and falls under critically polluted areas as per CPCB/MoEFCC Notification. Therefore, a study of air pollution and its management is the demand of the day. This study had been undertaken to know the current status of JCF concerning air quality. Ambient air quality monitoring with reference to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), SO2, NOx and trace elements had been conducted in the coal mining areas of JCF. The study area was divided into two groups, mainly fire and non-fire for the sampling of air. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified coal mine fire as a major source of air pollution in the mining areas of JCF. Air quality index (AQI) was calculated which revealed that the air quality index of coal mine fire-affected areas was nearly 1.5 times higher than that of the non-mine fire areas.