The chapter attends to Byzantine medieval monkhood and its ascetic praxis, primarly in the framework of development and historical context including a little consideration of specificly theological questions of ascetic praxis and the monasticism. In basic points it presents the survey of monastic praxis in Byzantium c. of 1000 years of its history. This entry is focused to the most important moments of the history of monkhood, concretely on those, who express vigorously the difference between Byzantine monasticism and monastic praxis and life in the medieval European continental culture. Beside the workaday and juridic questions this chapter's marginally noticing the theological essence of the phenomenon in its development, i.e. theological conception of ascetism in Byzantium from the time period of St. Basil the Great through the mysticism represented by Ven. Simeon the New Theologist to the theological syntheses of ascetism by St. Gregor of Palama, i.e. the Palamism and Hesychasm of the 14th century. In this direction the entry has primarly synthesizing character and it doesn't writes out the sketched subject matter. Also is important to note, that the whole context of historical - theological development, in a framework of secular historiography, doctrinal history and monasticism in its variety (how the monkhood is certainly presented in Byzantium) with the overlap to Slavic cultural environment via Byzantine mission, isn't comprehensively elaborated in our envi-ronment yet.