Abstract Evidence has recently emerged that migratory birds are among the prey taken by 2 large insectivorous bat species in Europe and India. This raises the question of whether large aerial-hawking bats in other temperate regions also make use of this food resource. We analyzed the diet of the birdlike noctule (Nyctalus aviator), one of the largest aerial-hawking bats in Japan, and found bird remains in pellets collected in spring, autumn, and early winter, but not in summer. Predation on birds may be a widespread behavior among large, fast-flying insectivorous bats in temperate regions. Our results would provide new perspectives on the ecological and evolutionary interactions between bats and birds.